Department of Geoecology and Climatology


Meteorology, actinometry


In the centre of Warsaw (Twarda Street) within high dense settlement (contiguous built-up area), two automatic stations are situated: actinometric (since the fall of 1998), and meteorological (since the fall of 1999). Sensors are located at three different heights: on the roof of the building (ca. 25m above the level of the street), on the terrace of the building (ca. 6m above the inner courtyard), as well as in the courtyard (since 2007) – ca. 2m above the ground level. Among other things, following sensing devices are used for measurements: temperature and humidity sensors (Vaisala), anemometers (Young), pyranometer (Kipp&Zonen), while for registration purposes – Campbell recorder.

Scope of measurements:

  • roof: global (Kglob) and diffuse (Kdif) solar radiation, UV radiation, air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), direction and speed of wind (Wind), atmospheric pressure;
  • terrace: global (Kglob) solar radiation, air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), direction and speed of wind (Wind);
  • courtyard: air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), atmospheric precipitation.

Borowa Góra

The Borowa Góra weather station of the Department of Geoecology and Climatology, located around 35 km north of Warsaw (meteorological garden in the vicinity of arable fields and allotment gardens), has two automatic stations (Campbell recorders, Vaisala temperature and humidity sensors , Young anemometers, Kipp&Zonen pyranometers):

  • meteorological station (measurements carried out since the fall of 1999) - air temperature (Ta) and humidity (RH) and direction and speed of wind (Wind),
  • actinometric station (measurements carried out since the fall of 2000) – global (Kglob) and reflected (Kref) solar radiation and UV radiation.


The station is located in the suburbs of Bydgoszcz city. In close collaboration with the Institute of Geography of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz since the fall of 2000, measurements have been conducted on global solar radiation, air temperature and humidity, direction and speed of wind as well as atmospheric pressure.

Hala Gąsienicowa

In the Hala Gąsienicowa Research Stations of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS in the Tatras (Poland) since the fall of 1997, measurements are carried out on the global solar radiation, air temperature and patterns of heat streams in the soil under various kinds of vegetation. The Polish measurement devices (made by Ellab company) are used.

Warsaw and its vicinity (network of microclimatic measurements)

Since the spring of 2007 in Warsaw and its vicinity, the network of microclimatic measurement sites has been operating (air temperature, atmospheric precipitation), made up of 20 measurements stands: 8 of which are distributed within the Warsaw city limits, in various urban units, while 12 of them in satellite towns.

Amount of preciptiation is measured at 10 measurement stands: 2 in the city (Kamionek, Białołęka) and 8 in the neighborhood towns (Błonie, Mińsk Mazowiecki, Radzymin, Sulejówek, Tłuszcz, Wołomin, Zalesie i Zielonka). In the 10 measurement stands, the readout of amount of precipitation is conducted on a daily basis by observers at 6.00 UTC, whereas on the remaining 2 other measurement stands there are HOBO autonomous rain gauges (Onset Computers Corporation).

Air temperature is measured at 16 measurement stands: 7 in the city of Warsaw (Bemowo, Białołęka, Kamionek, Powsin, Siekierki, Zacisze, Żerań), and 9 in the neighborhood towns (area of the Kampinos National Park, Legionowo, Łomianki, Michalin, Sulejówek, Tłuszcz, Wołomin, Zalesie, Zielonka). In all of these sites, sensors (at the height of 1.5m above ground level) and automatic HOBO recorders are installed. Sampling takes place every 10s, mean 10-minute values are recorded. Readouts from recorders are conducted once every 1-3 months.

Jointly with the SGGW university (Warsaw University of Life Sciences), in the period between September and December 2008, the existing network of measurement stands was expanded to include 18 more stands, on which thermal recorders (measurement of air temperature at two levels) as well as temperature & humidity loggers were set up. The expansion of network was finalized under the framework of research project: Assessment of biologically active areas’ indicator as a standard for shaping the spatial structure of housing lands (project No. N527 0669 33 financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education).

Location of microclimatic measurements stands


List of stands used for microclimatic measurements

No.SiteRange of measurementsDescription
1  Warszawa - Bemowo  T  dense one-family housing
2a  Warszawa - Białołęka  T  dispersed one-family housing
2b  Warszawa - Białołęka  precipitation  dispersed one-family housing
3  Warszawa (Twarda)  automatic stations (meteorological and actinometric)
4  Warszawa - Kamionek    T,  precipitation    lawn in the area of housing estate 
5  Warszawa - Powsin  T  area of the PAS Botanical Garden
6  Warszawa - Siekierki  T  agricultural lands within the city limits
7  Warszawa - Zacisze  T  dense one-family housing
8  Warszawa - Żerań  T  industrial built-up area
9  Błonie  precipitation   allotment gardens
10  Borowa Góra  automatic stations (meteorological and actinometric)
11  KPN  T  meteor. garden in the area of KPN
12  Legionowo  T  area of Aerology Center (IMGW)
13  Łomianki  T  industrial built-up area
14  Michalin  T  dispersed one-family housing
15  Mińsk Mazowiecki  precipitation   dispersed one-family housing
16  Radzymin  precipitation   dispersed one-family housing
17  Sulejówek  T, precipitation  dispersed one-family housing
18  Tłuszcz  T, precipitation  dispersed one-family housing
19  Wołomin  T, precipitation  dispersed one-family housing
20  Zalesie  T, precipitation  dispersed one-family housing
21  Zielonka  T, precipitation  dispersed one-family housing

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Last actualization: 3.07.2011