Multimodalna dostępność transportem publicznym na poziomie gminnym w Polsce Multimodal public transport accessibility of Polish gminas

Date: 2013-01-21 - 2017-01-20

Supervisor: Piotr Rosik

Contractors: Tomasz Komornicki, Marcin Mazur, Wojciech Pomianowski, Piotr Rosik, Marcin Stępniak, Sławomir Goliszek

Orderer institution: Narodowe Centrum Nauki
No.: 2012/05/E/HS4/01798

Object of the project is an analysis of multimodal potential accessibility in Poland at the very low aggregation level (2,321 units, i.e., transportation regions) at the gmina level with the aid of computer application MULTIMODACC. The previous research studies into potential accessibility that have been thus far carried out in the IGiPZ PAN concerned primarily the road accessibility and, to a limited extent, rail accessibility (Rosik 2012). Multimodal aspect was taken into consideration only through analysis of shares in the transport performance (Komornicki et al. 2010), not being calculated for each trip separately. The current project will constitute a natural elaboration and extention of potential studies as a measure of accessibility that were taken up by Z. Chojnicki (1966) and W. Ratajczak (1999), as well as of studies on the transportation networks complexes conducted by R. Domański (1963), and also of research into accessibility to services carried out by Taylor (1999) and Guzik (2003).

Project’s objectives can be divided into methodological, cognitive and applicative. The main objective of the project, being of cognitive character, is a diagnosis of multimodal (bus, rail and air), time and cost situation of public transport accessibility of gminas in Poland, calculated with the aid of a potential model: 1. for each mode of transport independently and 2. with taking into account possibility for transfers between sub-networks (assuming that all the sub-networks constitute a common network). It is assumed that comparison of multimodal accessibility with private transport accessibility (passenger cars) both for short as well as for long travels will allow for recognizing areas (gminas) with a particularly poor accessibility by public transport in relation to private transport.

The subsidiary objective of methodological nature is applying a research methodology for estimating multimodal accessibility by public transport with the use of potential model, including research methodology concerning:

  1. Estimation of socio-economic value of time and calculation in the context of Polish conditions the so-called generalized cost made up of time, cost and traveling comfort; 
  2. Estimation of income flexibility for demand and cross transport elasticity of demand between air and rail transport as well as between rail and bus transport in the context of substitution goods, thereby estimating accessibility for low- and high-income passengers; 
  3. Estimation of accessibility for short and long travels based on differentiation of the beta parameter of an exponential distance decay function.

Subsidiary objective of methodological and applicable character will be also devising a tool for multimodal analysis of potential accessibility that would allow for changes in transport, called MULTIMODACC (Multimodal Accessibility Calculation). It is assumed that time that is needed for change between different traffic modes will be included into the shortest travel route for each trip in the form of decay at the transport hubs, that is railway stations and airports. Applicative and research tool will allow for carrying out similar analysis as in the road transport with the use of the computer application OGAM that was developed in the IGiPZ PAN, which makes it possible to analyze changes in accessibility as result of completing infrastructure investments. As regards public transport, it will be thus possible to simulate impact of changes in potential accessibility resulting from starting new flight connection or modernizing railway lines.

Research hypothesis: Spatial distribution of public transport accessibility differs significantly from private transportation accessibility. As regards short-distance travels, better accessibility is typical for the areas of agglomeration where public transport presents viable alternative to individual transport. Where long-distance travels are concerned, public transport is an option only in the case of selected inter-agglomeration connections (availability of air connections as well as direct fast rail connections). In case of generalized travel cost (taking account of an element of distance decay, i.e., time, costs and comfort of travel), spatial distribution of accessibility is significantly different in relation to time. Accessibility is significantly better for high-income groups, however that growth in accessibility is particularly evident for inter-agglomeration traffic flows where one can find fast air and (for selected routes) rail connections.

The final product of the project will be a set of several dozens of maps (cartograms) illustrating the state of multimodal accessibility in Poland  (diagnostic and differentiation maps). The results will be provided within the framework of a computer application MULTIMODACC that allows for determining potential accessibility including also changes between subnetworks.


Articles, chapters, papers and others

Abstracts, reviews, notes



  • Rosik Piotr, Stępniak Marcin, Komornicki Tomasz: An evaluation of the impact of the construction of motorways and expressways in Poland during the period 2004–13 on accessibility and cohesion. [w]: EU Cohesion Policy: Reassessing performance and direction. Red. John Bachtler, Peter Berkowitz, Sally Hardy, Tatjana Muravska. London, New York: Routledge, 2017 - s. 87-100 (Regions and Cities; 111)
  • Rosik Piotr, Komornicki Tomasz, Goliszek Sławomir: Zmiany dostępności drogowej i kolejowej województw zachodniopomorskiego i pomorskiego w latach 2007-2015. [w]: Wybrane aspekty funkcjonowania transportu na obszarach nadmorskich. Red. Marcin Połom. Gdańsk-Pelplin: Wydawnictwo Bernardinum, 2016 - s. 7-21 (Regiony Nadmorskie; 24)

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